menstrual cycle

a natural part of woman's life


Menstruation is the periodic bleeding induced by physiological changes in the body of women and girls. The onset of menstrual bleeding usually occurs at the time of puberty, when girls are also starting to develop secondary sexual signs. Since the first menstrual cycle, a woman goes through a reproduction period that prepares her for childbirth.

Menstruation is a permanent part of every woman’s life and lasts until the menopause period, which usually occurs around the age of 50 years of the woman’s life and when the reproductive period ends.

Why do we have menstruation?

Menstruation is not a punishment. It is the proof of womanhood. It’s a fertility symbol. It is the way the female body cleans. That is why the female body can do such amazing things as to conceive and give birth to a child. That is why women live longer. Because their blood is regularly changed and cleansed. It is therefore very important that women and girls cease to perceive the menstrual cycle as something that is punishment but to take these days as an important part of their lives, of themselves. And this can happen especially if the woman experiences these mostly uncomfortable days in peace, without pain, in psychological well-being, as if it were a normal day outside the menstrual period.

During menstruation, the overwhelming majority of women feel psychic anxiety, irritability, physical weakness, pain and energy loss. All this happens in the woman’s body just before the menstrual period, or during the first menstrual period. Due to the recurrent state of the body and the mind of a woman, which occurs every month, menstruation period for women is an unpleasant period of time that has to be outlasted.

The female body is in anticipation of pain, at the same time hormones, which cause hypersensitivity and irritability, are released.

The bleeding itself during menstruation is caused by the separation of part of the uterine mucosa. Therefore, this process often accompanies pain or nausea. Professionally, this painful menstruation is called dysmenorrhea. Unfavorable physical and psychological conditions have been observed by doctors particularly in younger women. Painful menstruation can also be experienced by middle-aged and elderly women.


Many women also suffer from severe and long-lasting bleeding, which may be regular or irregular. This condition is often accompanied by other unpleasant conditions, such as flatulence, bloated stomach, headache that can evolve into migraine or anxiety and irritability. All this often underlines the cramps and pain in the lower abdomen.

In the period outside of menstruation, occasionaly so-called “spotting” occurs, or weak bleeding outside the menstrual period. This is happens especially if the hormonal level is not in balance in the body.

Individual stages of the menstrual cycle

Four phases of menstrual cycle

During the menstrual cycle, processes are taking place in the body of the woman, which are repeated every month, and have the task of preparing a woman for the process of reproduction, the preparation of a new and healthy life.

In girls, the first symptoms of menstruation occur after the 12th year of their lifetime, their menstrual cycle is irregular at first, but the cycle will stabilize over time.

The menstrual cycle of a woman happen in 4 stages, during which changes take place, both inside the female body and in the female mind. One cycle usually lasts 28 days and its two peaks are the menstrual and ovulatory periods.

Menstrual phase

The onset of the menstrual cycle is characterized by menstrual bleeding, which happens if mature egg was not fertilized and nested. Withdrawal of the walls in the uterus and the destruction of unnecessary mucosal cells occurs. Following the release of the contractions, new blood flows into the mucous membrane, which carries away these dead cells. The body thus cleanses and removes unnecessary uterine mucous membranes with blood and mucus, thereby preparing for fertilization in the upcoming cycle.

The length of menstrual bleeding may vary between women, it usually lasts 2-7 days. During bleeding, an average of 30-80 ml of blood is lost.

During this period women usually feel tired, lack energy, seek rest and sleep more. They are also more closed and less communicative.

Follicular phase

The female body is preparing for ovulation during this period. In one of the ovaries, the egg gradually becomes mature and the ovaries begin to produce an increased amount of estrogen. As a result, a new mucus begins to form in the uterus and the uterine cervix begins to produce more mucus.

Women have a lot of energy in this period, they can handle a lot of activities, they are cheerful and optimistic. They don’t need that much sleep, they have more physical strength during the day, and they are able to lose weight easier. They love to flirt and have fun, their sexual needs are quite distinctive.

This period lasts for approximately 6 days. In this cycle, only one egg matures, usually.

Ovulation phase

During this phase, the already mature ovum from the ovary follicle is released into the fallopian tube. This process is called ovulation, the entire cycle is the shortest period, and usually lasts 2-3 days.

During this short period, LH hormone production increases significantly, making it easier to release the egg. The probability of its fertilization is the highest in this ovulation period. The uterine cervix mucus maintains an alkaline environment in the vagina and helps the sperm reach its goal – the egg. Some women may have vaginal outflows during this period, which may sometimes be accompanied by slight bleeding, so-called dirt.

Women have more energy in this period, they are productive and sexually active. The body is ready for conception

Luteal phase

At this phase, the egg travels to the uterus, and if it is not fertilized, it is flushed out of the body, along with the uterine mucosa.

The empty follicle closes and turns into a corpus luteum producing estrogens and progesterone, which helps to grow the uterine mucosa. The amount of uterine cervix mucus decreases. If the egg was not fertilized, the corpus luteum disappears while the level of progesterone decreases. Narrowing of the blood wall in the mucosa occurs and as it begins to die. This phase closes the whole cycle and returns to the menstrual period.

The premenstrual phase takes about 13 to 14 days and it is the longest of the whole cycle. Women perceive this period very strongly, they are sexually active, passionate and have flushes of energy. Mood swings, nervousness or increased emotions often occur. Women also have difficulties with concentration.

Can you have sexual intercourse during menstruation?

Sexual intercourse during menstrual periods is usually not recommended. Sexual organs of women are much more sensitive during this period and infections can also occur. Women’s psychics are in imbalance in this period, and so usually they do not have much taste for loving. Yet sexual intercourse is not harmful in this period. Some women may, on the contrary, feel an increased desire for sexual activity. And how is it possible to get pregnant during this period? Some women ovulate just after menstruation, sperm can survive this period, and the woman can get pregnant.

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